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    • Overview


      Obesity is a multifaceted medical condition characterized by an excess accumulation of body fat. Beyond its aesthetic implications, obesity poses significant health risks, acting as a catalyst for a range of diseases and health complications. Notably, it amplifies the vulnerability to ailments like heart disease, diabetes, hypertension, elevated cholesterol levels, liver disorders, sleep apnea, and specific types of cancer.

      The underlying causes of obesity are intricate, often encompassing genetic predisposition, physiological intricacies, and environmental influences, all interplaying with dietary habits, physical engagement, and exercise regimens.

      Encouragingly, even modest weight reduction can yield substantial benefits, mitigating or even preventing the health issues intricately linked with obesity. Positive transformations in diet, heightened physical activity, and constructive behavioral changes are instrumental in shedding excess weight. For those seeking medical intervention, prescription medications and weight-loss procedures represent viable avenues for managing obesity.

    • Symptoms


      The Body Mass Index (BMI) serves as a prevalent diagnostic tool for assessing obesity. Calculating BMI involves multiplying weight in pounds by 703, then dividing by height in inches, followed by another division by height in inches. Alternatively, the formula can be applied by dividing weight in kilograms by the square of height in meters.

      Asians with a BMI of 23 or higher might be at an elevated risk of health issues.

      While BMI offers a reasonable estimation of body fat for most individuals, it does not directly measure body fat. Certain individuals, such as muscular athletes, could fall into the obesity category based on BMI, despite not having excessive body fat.

      In addition to BMI, healthcare practitioners often employ waist circumference measurements to inform treatment strategies. This parameter, known as waist circumference, plays a crucial role in guiding medical decisions. Notably, men with a waist circumference exceeding 40 inches (102 centimeters) and women with a waist measurement surpassing 35 inches (89 centimeters) are at an elevated risk of weight-related health problems.

      Furthermore, body fat percentage stands as another metric that may be utilized within weight loss programs to monitor progress.

    • When to see a doctor


      Abnormal symptoms may be a warning sign of potential dangerous diseases. Please contact our team of doctors immediately for detailed advice and update the most accurate and appropriate health care method.

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    • Causes


      Obesity results from a complex interplay of genetic, behavioral, metabolic, and hormonal factors. However, its fundamental cause lies in an energy imbalance: consuming more calories than the body expends through everyday activities and exercise. These surplus calories are stored as fat within the body.

      In the United States, diets predominantly consist of calorie-dense foods, frequently derived from fast-food options and high-calorie beverages. Individuals affected by obesity may find themselves consuming a larger quantity of calories before experiencing a sense of fullness. Hunger pangs might resurface sooner, or eating could increase as a response to stress or anxiety.

      The modern lifestyle in Western nations often involves less physically demanding occupations, leading to a reduction in calorie expenditure during work hours. Routine activities also burn fewer calories due to the prevalence of conveniences such as remote controls, escalators, online shopping, and drive-through services at restaurants and banks. These lifestyle shifts contribute to the energy imbalance underlying obesity.

    • Risk factors


      Obesity arises from a convergence of multifaceted causes and influential factors:

      1. Genetic and Familial Influences: The genetic legacy inherited from parents can impact body fat accumulation and distribution. Genetic factors influence energy conversion, appetite regulation, and calorie expenditure during physical activity. Shared genes, as well as similar eating and activity habits within families, contribute to obesity’s familial pattern.
      2. Lifestyle Choices: Unhealthy eating patterns significantly contribute to weight gain. Diets high in calorie-dense foods, low in fruits and vegetables, abundant in fast food, and characterized by oversized portions foster obesity. Consumption of high-calorie beverages, including alcohol and sugared soft drinks, further exacerbates weight concerns. A sedentary lifestyle, coupled with extensive screen time, often leads to a calorie surplus, hindering weight control.
      3. Medical Conditions and Medications: Certain medical conditions like hypothyroidism, Cushing syndrome, and Prader-Willi syndrome can contribute to obesity. Health issues such as arthritis may reduce physical activity, promoting weight gain. Specific medications, including steroids, certain antidepressants, antiseizure drugs, diabetes medications, antipsychotics, and some beta blockers, can lead to weight increase.
      4. Social and Economic Factors: Obesity links to social and economic circumstances. Limited access to safe exercise spaces, inadequate knowledge of healthy cooking methods, and restricted availability of nutritious foods contribute to weight gain. Social networks also play a role; having friends or family with obesity increases the likelihood of developing it.
      5. Age: Obesity can emerge at any age, but hormonal changes and decreased physical activity with advancing age heighten susceptibility. Age-related muscle loss and slowed metabolism contribute to weight gain. Sustained vigilance over dietary choices and increased physical activity become crucial as one ages to manage weight.
      6. Additional Influences: Various factors contribute to obesity’s complexity:
        • Pregnancy: Pregnancy-related weight gain may persist postpartum and contribute to later obesity in women.
        • Smoking Cessation: Quitting smoking often leads to weight gain, as some people resort to food to cope with withdrawal. Nonetheless, quitting smoking holds greater health benefits.
        • Sleep Patterns: Inadequate or excessive sleep can disrupt hormones regulating appetite and spur cravings for high-calorie foods.
        • Stress: Stress triggers consumption of calorie-rich foods, contributing to weight gain.
        • Microbiome: Gut bacteria composition, influenced by dietary choices, plays a role in weight gain or loss.

      Possessing one or more risk factors doesn’t predetermine obesity. You can mitigate most risk factors through dietary adjustments, increased physical activity, and behavioral changes. Medical interventions, including medications and procedures, offer further options in managing obesity. Embracing a holistic approach empowers individuals to combat obesity and improve overall well-being.

    • Prevention


      While tackling obesity involves a comprehensive approach, incorporating small, sustainable changes into daily life can yield significant benefits. Here are some key strategies for obesity prevention:

      1. Healthy Eating Habits: Adopting a balanced and nutritious diet is essential. Focus on whole foods, such as fruits, vegetables, lean proteins, whole grains, and healthy fats. Limit consumption of sugary and processed foods, which contribute to excess calorie intake.
      2. Portion Control: Being mindful of portion sizes helps regulate calorie intake. Use smaller plates, bowls, and utensils to encourage appropriate portions. Listen to your body’s hunger and fullness cues to avoid overeating.
      3. Regular Physical Activity: Engaging in regular exercise is crucial for weight management. Aim for at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity or 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity activity each week. Incorporate strength training to build muscle, which boosts metabolism.
      4. Limit Screen Time: Reduce time spent in front of screens, such as TVs, computers, and smartphones. Encourage outdoor activities, social interactions, and hobbies that involve movement.
      5. Stay Hydrated: Drinking water instead of sugary beverages helps control calorie intake. Staying hydrated also supports metabolism and overall health.
      6. Adequate Sleep: Prioritize quality sleep, aiming for 7-9 hours per night. Sleep influences hormones that regulate appetite and metabolism. Inadequate sleep can lead to weight gain.
      7. Stress Management: Adopt stress-reduction techniques such as meditation, deep breathing, yoga, or mindfulness. Managing stress helps prevent emotional eating and excessive calorie consumption.
      8. Family and Social Support: Involve family and friends in healthy lifestyle changes. Encourage shared physical activities, nutritious meals, and mutual motivation.
      9. Mindful Eating: Pay attention to what and why you’re eating. Eating slowly, savoring each bite, and recognizing true hunger cues can prevent overeating.
      10. Regular Health Check-ups: Regular medical check-ups help monitor weight, identify potential health risks, and receive guidance on lifestyle modifications.
      11. Set Realistic Goals: Establish achievable and sustainable goals. Focus on making gradual changes that can be maintained over time.
      12. Limit Added Sugars and Processed Foods: Minimize consumption of sugary snacks, desserts, and processed foods high in refined carbohydrates. These foods contribute to calorie excess and rapid blood sugar spikes.
      13. Cook at Home: Preparing meals at home gives you control over ingredients and portion sizes, promoting healthier choices.


      Obesity prevention is a lifelong commitment that involves making conscious decisions to prioritize health. By adopting these strategies and creating a supportive environment, individuals can significantly reduce their risk of obesity and its associated health complications. Remember that small, consistent efforts can lead to substantial improvements in weight management and overall well-being.

    • *Please note that the information provided in the article is for reference purposes only. It is essential to consult a doctor before applying any of the suggestions mentioned.

    Content Details

    Medical info from Mayo Clinic, for reference only. Visit Hoan My for better advice.

    Last updated on: 06/08/2023